The vulnerability of a calf's respiratory system

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A calf’s respiratory system is very vulnerable, leaving the animal susceptible to problems and issues.

  • A calf’s lungs develop relatively late in life, becoming fully mature only when the animal is 2 years old. As a result, calf lungs have very little reserve capacity.
  • The airwaves are relatively narrow, so they get easily blocked.
  • Calf lungs are heavily segmented, and each segment has only one entry point for the airways. If this entry point becomes blocked the entire segment will not function properly.

Maintaining good respiratory health is of the upmost importance to ensure that a calf reaches its potential as a milking cow later in life.

Pulmosure S - Act at the first cough

Managing Respiratory Health:

Colostrum Management

Ensure calves get sufficient amounts of colostrum. This improves their immunity during the first few months of life.

Climate and Housing

Avoid overcrowding and variations in temperature/ humidity as much as possible. Ensure there is sufficient ventilation in the calf shed.


Consult your vet to ensure calves are properly vaccinated against the most important respiratory pathogens.

Avoid stressful situations

Stress can result in lower immunity in your calves. Consider a stepwise weaning programme and don’t make sudden changes in rations. Ensure each animal has sufficient space for feeding.

Act at the first signs with Pulmosure S

Once the first warning signs occur, it is important to act quickly and support the respiratory tract’s primary defense mechanism. The upper parts of respiratory tract contain so-called goblet cells. These produce a mucous layer that covers the inner lining of the tract and traps unwanted particles inhaled by the calf.

The inner lining of the respiratory tract also contains tiny hairs called cilia. These move the mucous layer outwards, clearing the lungs of these inhaled particles. This system is called the MUCOCILIARY CLEARANCE SYSTEM.

In the early stage of a respiratory problem the mucociliary clearance system is suppressed, making the calf’s respiratory tract vulnerable. Farm-O-San Pulmosure S contains eucalyptus oil which helps boost mucociliary clearance by increasing mucous production.

Why use Pulmosure S?

  • Pulmosure S has been specifically designed for the addition into whole milk or rehydrated milk replacer.
  • Pulmosure S is formulated to mix easily into milk and is fully soluble.
  • Pulmosure S allows individual calves to be fed Pulmosure S in situations where inclusion into the milk powder may not be appropriate for the group.
  • Pulmosure S contains saponins, cineol and terpenoids which are plant extracts with functional properties which help support intestinal mucosal integrity and absorption of nutrients.

Act at the first cough:

Farm-O-San Pulmosure contains eucalyptus oil to increase mucous production and boost clearance of inhaled particles. It helps breathing by supporting the defence mechanism in the airways.

Easy administration of Farm-O-San Pulmosure S

Farm-O-San Pulmosure S can be mixed into calf milk replacer and whole milk or purchased already mixed into your Trouw Nutrition milk powder. Farm-O-San Pulmosure S should be mixed into the milk powder at a rate of 10g/calf/day.

Click here  to download a printable copy of this information.

If you have any queries, please contact the Farm-O-San team or

Animal Health Team

Roxanne Winstanley
Animal Health Account Manager - North & Product Manager Farm-O-San
+44 (0)7767 482383
Roxanne Winstanley
Emma Millar
Animal Health Account Manager - South
+44 (0)7801 568586
Emma Millar